Friday 25 January 2013

Twa Excisemen

Robert Burns by Alexander Nasmyth (1758-1840)

Today the Scottish poet Robert Burns will be celebrated around the world with variations on the traditional supper of haggis, neeps and tatties. It was on this day in 1759 that Robert was born in Alloway, to William Burnes and Agnes Broun, and this supper tradition started in 1802.

Carmichael obviously held Burns in high esteem and in a lecture entitled 'The Poets and Poetry of Scotland' (CW223) he comments that: 

The glory of the sun the shining of the moon or the twinkling of the stars find no response from the stoical hearts of these. The “wee modest crimson tipped flower” the daisy of the field is of no moment to the careless eye or callous heart. But the kindly eye and loving heart of Burns saw beauties in the daisy that have made it for ever immortal.

Again in an unfinished essay entitled 'The Bards and Bardism of the Highlands' (CW107/1) Carmichael mentions Burns:

After Burns shined a meteor
of dazzaling brilliancy a host of imitations
appeared and although some of them
were poets of considerable merits and
sweetness none of them were able to ap-
proach their original.

Carmichael's effort to link the great poet to the Highlands via Walter Campbell who fled to Kincardine after committing mass-murder was outlined in a previous blog entry

Burns and Carmichael both worked as excisemen with Burns being commissioned 14 July 1788. Burns wrote the following verse prior to being appointed (you can listen to Paul Young reciting the verse for BBC here :       

Searching auld wives barrels,
Och-hon! the day!
That clarty barm should stain my laurels;
But-what'll ye say!
These movin' things ca'd wives and weans
Wad move the very hearts o' stanes!

Burns deliberated between farming and the excise but after a six week induction in Edinburgh accepted the excise position. Cunningham writes:

That the Poet delighted not in the name of gauger is well known: yet he would allow no one to speak ill of the Excise but himself. He was strict, but merciful: the smuggler had no chance of escape from him, while to the country purchaser he was very indulgent.       

If Carmichael and Burns ever met, what do you think they'd discuss: work or poetry?

Happy Burns' Day!

Carmichael, Alexander, ‘The Land of Lorne and the Satirists of Taynuilt', Evergreen, vol. I (Spring, 1895), pp. 110–15
CW107/1, fol. 7v
CW223. fol. 16r
Cunningham, A., The works of Robert Burns ; with his life, vol. 3 (London: James Cochrane and Company, 1834) p. 303
Henderson, T.F., Robert Burns (London: Methuen and Company, 1904)
©Courtesy of the Trustees of Burns Monument and Burns Cottage. Licensor 

Friday 4 January 2013

Objects in Focus: Winnowing Riddle

Happy New Year to all our blog readers!
© Carsten Flieger
The first object of the year to be presented is the winnowing riddle, also called a criathar. In the Carmichael Collection, West Highland Museum, there is a fine example of a riddle on display in their agricultural section. This tool was used between threshing and grinding corn and was made of a cured and dried sheepskin or calfskin fastened to a wooden frame - nasg criathair. The skin was then punctured with a hot point, occasionally in a concentric pattern, creating a sieve. 

The sieve was held with both hands and the corn was shaken in a circular motion to allow unwanted dirt to filter through, leaving behind the larger and heavier grains. Often this was done outside with the wecht and the corn was tossed in the air allowing the chaff to be blown away by the wind.
©University of Edinburgh: Dept. of Celtic and Scottish Studies,
The image above, from the Werner Kissling Collection, portrays a woman using the winnowing sieve on South Uist in 1936. In Carmina Gadelica there is a description of two stages of sieving:

Càthadh. Winnowing corn in the barn – the first operation; the second and final operation was fasgnadh, winnowing on the knoll. The toll-càthaidh, ‘chaff-hole’, was a small hole about three feet square in the back wall of the kiln to admit wind to clean the corn. This hole was on the ground and, when not required, was closed with a board, or a plàt made of straw or bent or rushes. (VI-37)

The corn, now separated from the chaff and extraneous matter, was ready for grinding.
© Carsten Flieger
There were also some divination practices associated with the riddle, the most common was a method of identifying a future spouse. This was carried out by winnowing specific items: silver coins or even winnowing an empty sieve. In the notebooks Carmichael provides another example from Skye of a servant girl foretelling her future husband:

CW7/32 Càthadh an Fhras Lìn. The lint seed was winnowed in the, "comh-ràth, dusk The was done at Draoineach Skye by a servant girl in the house. The wife of Draoineach asked the girl whom did she see and the girl answered that she had no luck that the only saw her master. Well you shall have him yet said her misterss. The mistress died soon after and before the year was out Fear na Draoinich married this young girl!

Grant, Highland Folk Ways, provides an account of a woman in Arran, in 1709, who went before the local Kirk Session for using a riddle to identify a thief!  

A similar sieve was made in Ireland but variations developed: thin strips of wood were laced across the frame to create a mesh (instead of the sheepskin) and the thickness of the mesh would vary according to its purpose. Wire eventually replaced the wood strips.

Carmichael, A. Carmina Gadelica vi (Edinburgh: Floris Books, 1900-1972)
Grant, I. F. Highland Folk Ways (Edinburgh: Birlinn, 1961)
Lucas, A. T. "Making Wooden Sieves" The Journal of the Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland, 81: 2 (1951), 146-155. 

Stone whorls WHM 1992 13 2.4

Stone whorls WHM 1992 13 2.4
Stone whorls collected by Alexander Carmichael, held by West Highland Museum (ref. WHM 1992 13 2.4). [©]